Epoxy Overview

relinedpipeEpoxy resins are supplied as two-part solvent free systems consisting of resin or base material and hardener or activator. When properly mixed they will give a rapid cure, high-build, potable water certified material. The cured material is inert and achieves corrosion protection by providing an impermeable barrier, effectively separating the water from the pipe material, thereby stopping further corrosion.

The finished coating is smooth and hard with excellent water resistance and hydraulic profile.
The lining will not impair the quality of potable water, nor will it affect the pH. The thin, smooth coating enhances flow capacity of previously corroded mains enabling pressure reduction to be readily achieved.
The epoxy resin coatings are applied with the use of in-situ lining rigs equipped with heated materials storage tanks and umbilical hoses and application spray heads.

In the United Kingdom, there has been a complete transition from cement mortar to the exclusive use of epoxy resin/polymeric materials. The main reason for this change was the result of the development of water quality issues associated with cement mortar lining.


Application Surfaces: Cast iron, steel, ductile iron, asbestos cement
Diameter range: 3” - 24”
Lining thickness: 1 mm /40 mil as per code of practice, up to 2 mm
Lining lengths: up to 530 feet
Bends: up to a single long radius
45 degrees /3” diameter
Lining speeds: 3 to 6 meters/min for 100 mm pipe/19 feet /min for 4” pipe, 1 to 2 meters/min for 600 mm pipe/6.5 feet /min for 24” pipe


Advanced applications systems
Latest resin system technology
Flow metering / monitoring
±5% controlled mix ratio
Heated umbilical hoses
Custom designed application equipment
Durable and cost effective linings
Watermain, gas and industrial process applications
Certified to meet ANS/NSF standard 61



Triton supplies the latest technology dual-purpose, self contained lining rigs which consist of:

  • Towable 4 wheel chassis, with hazard lights, indicators, lockable shutters and bottle fixings
  • Two heated component storage reservoirs, with cover mounted mix ratio dispensers, temperature monitors and base nitrogen blanket facility (if required)
  • Two stage pumping system, consisting of primary charging circuit, via pneumatic reciprocating piston transfer pumps and a high pressure pneumatic, positive displacement, piston metering pump discharging a fixed mix ratio to the umbilical, via material flow meters and multi port rotary couplings attached to the winch drum
  • Trace heating circuit, to maintain constant heat circulation to component reservoirs and umbilical from either a LPG fuelled heat exchanger or electrical powered immersion heating unit distributing a water/ethylene glycol solution
  • Monitoring system, a “state of the art” electronic control system which constantly monitors all crucial aspects of lining performance enabling client confidence due to hard copy recording of all crucial information
  • Umbilical hose, consisting of two component hoses, one air line and three heating fluid transportation hoses
  • Ancillary items, consisting of spinner/mixer assemblies, power leads, prover/puller, skids and skid carrier


Engineered & designed for cleaning potable water mains from 3”-8”(75mm-200mm diameter). The unit is designed for one man operation and comes equipped with:

  • Silent pack diesel engine to power the hydraulic system, Inclined track complete with rod guard, rod rack and control station
  • Mounted on a two wheeled chassis complete with braking system Cleaning accessories

Dirty brown water and poor water flow were the first clues that a Mid-Atlantic commercial property owner had a problem. Then the owner was put on notice by the local fire department that the water supply lines were no longer meeting the required flow requirements. Four hydrants on the owner's property were flowing between 200 to 300 gallons per minute—well below the 1,000 gallons per minute required by code. A section was inspected revealing the pipes were almost completely clogged with corrosion induced tuberculation.

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Corrosion causes most pipe problems including reduced flow, bacterial growth, red/dirty water and ultimately, leaks and breaks. Corrosion can occur slowly or quickly depending on a myriad of variables including:

  • Low or High pH, these can greatly accelerate corrosion
  • Oxygen content is a primary facilitator of MIC (corrosion)
  • Flow Rate - standing water shortens pipe life by promoting accelerated corrosion
  • Temperature - higher water temperatures facilitate faster corrosion


The first option considered was traditional dig-and-replace. But the property enjoyed extensive, mature landscaping that the owner strongly wished to avoid damaging. The owner was very concerned about coordinating with other utilities, disrupting tenants and customers and insuring that future corrosion was prevented. Other critical factors in selecting the most suitable technology for the project included finding a solution that would provide long-term improved water quality and supply—all at an affordable price.


The owner called his commercial plumbing contractor—Associates Plumbing Inc. to see if there was an alternative to digging up and replacing the existing piping. Associates Plumbing Inc. was experienced at lining ½" to 4" pipes inside buildings with a blow through epoxy pipe lining process. To avoid digging up the larger underground pipes and destroying the extensive landscaping, the 6? and 8? water main pipes would require use of a proven trenchless pipe rehabilitation technology that could handle tough access on sensitive grounds as well as avoiding digging up numerous service connections.

Triton Lining Technologies' proprietary spray lining process was designed for non-structural and semi-structural renewal of 4? to 24? water mains and is one of the least disruption rehabilitation technologies. The process applies a potable water certified epoxy to rehabilitate deteriorated, leaky and corrosion clogged pipes. At the AWWA standard 1mm thickness1, most typical pinhole leaks are sealed, pressure and flow ratings restored and the prevention of future corrosion is ensured. The property owner reviewed Triton Lining Technologies' epoxy system and 10 year, 400,000+ linear feet history of successfully rehabilitating North American water mains. He was satisfied that Triton's process offered proven long-term performance, attractive cost and time savings versus replacement and offered the least disruption to tenants, other utilities and grounds.

Note: Recent research by AWWA Research Foundation concluded that deteriorated old pipe lined with epoxy can expect an additional 50 year design life.2


Pipes are first located, isolated and accessed. Access points are typically made at fittings (valves, tees, hydrants, bends, etc.) in conformance with applicable authorities including the local fire department. Pipes are then cleaned using a choice of several cleaning methods to eliminate debris and corrosion buildup. A post cleaning CCTV inspection is then typically conducted to check for appropriate cleanliness, water leaks coming back into the pipe excessive service protrusions or other issues. Once cleared for lining, the epoxy lining hoses are inserted into the pipe and pulled to an exit pit at the far end of the isolated section of pipe, where the spray head is attached. The pre-calibrated spray rig is engaged, pumps actuated and the hose extracted at the rate calibrated to the size of the pipe and thickness of the lining. The spray head uses centrifugal force to spray line the epoxy resin in a uniform 360° pattern onto the inside surface of the pipe—creating a seamless and protective barrier. The system eliminates corrosion, prevents its reoccurrence and restores water quality and flow to optimal levels. A post lining CCTV inspection ensures the application was done in accordance with expectations and requirements.


Over 1,200 linear feet of tough access 6? and 8? cast iron mains were cleaned, lined and inspected in less than two weeks with no disruption in service to the owners' customers and only minor, temporary property impact.

The results were full restoration of all potable water and hydrant supply pipes on the property. Water flow was restored and all four fire hydrants now supply water at rates equal to or above code requirements of 1,000 gallons per minute.


  • 1,200 linear feet of 6? and 8? C/I Water Main
  • System feeds water to multiple buildings and four fire hydrants
  • Pipe system 70% to 90% constricted from corrosion-induced tuberculation
  • System flow had fallen to 200 gallons per minute
  • Full restoration took place in less than two weeks
  • Restored mains now provide over 1,000 gallons per minute to all fire hydrants

Throughout the lining process, tests and specific checks are performed. The entire lining process is monitored and test strips of the material and numerous reports are generated. Reports include but are not limited to:

  • CCTV Inspection Reports
  • Resin Lining Record
  • Non Conformance Report
  • Pipe Sample Quality Record

Most older pipes are structurally sound but are suffering from corrosion induced water quality and flow problems.

When considering spray applied linings for the rehabilitation of your assets there are a number of factors that need to be considered in order to determine if this method is the right trenchless repair method for your project.

Pipe material, condition, age, depth and size as well as soil type around the pipe are important factors.

Also to be considered are proximity to other utilies, potential environmental impacts, flow test data and if the asset will require a structural or non-structural rehabilitation.

Take into account maintenance history, including but not limited to: multi-year breaks, leakage, repairs, water quality reports and customer complaints.

In order to select the best technology, here is some criteria to consider:

• Pipe Logistics
– What is the number of existing service taps to be excavated
– How can you minimize environmental and social impact from construction

• Technology Performance
– Will it solves water quality issues, including pH levels
– Does it restores and/or improve hydraulic flow characteristics
– Can it stop leakage
– Will it provides corrosion protection and if so, to what degree
– Is the technology capable of structural renewal if/when necessary

• How cost effective is this long-term solution - how much will it extend the life of the asset

• Is an increase in the size of the new pipe required to meet demand

For more information and information on assessing feasibility of various technologies for your next project, download this comprehensive report published by the EPA.


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